Cam French

Collateral Damage VI

Tempted by the Fruit of Another 


Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. 

George Santayana

The sad truth is the ACBL had no more evidence come June in Atlanta than it did it at Norfolk. Why not? No one had bothered to look for it. How does that sit with President’s Spivak’s assertion that “it gets an important message to the members of the American Contract Bridge League, namely, that we shall vigorously pursue any breaches of the proprieties or instances of cheating that are brought to our attention.”?

Maybe that’s what Wolff was referring to when he said looking back at this was “too painful”. Too embarrassing is more like it. I don’t blame Wolff, but I don’t get the painful part. I guess it’s like looking back on the "ex", and remembering the good times with fondness and bad with horror. When it is someone else’s ex – the pain does not resonate with the same clarity.

You might think that when players of the stature of Martel, Woolsey, Lewis, Jacobus and Blumenthal approach a National Tournament Director with clear and irrefutable proof of cheating at the game’s highest level, that someone in Memphis would initiate an investigation into these allegations. But no, the time bought by the acquiescence of the code-breakers was squandered.

What the ACBL had in Atlanta (at the GNTs, June 1979), was a gun to its head. Until Woolsey said – we will not allow this situation to perpetuate, the League had NOTHING. No one was doing surveillance or gathering evidence after learning the truth in March. Memphis was in hibernation. At Atlanta, Woolsey and company re-explain the code they broke at Norfolk. They tell the director who can’t believe what he is hearing; cheaters were exposed three months earlier and here they are playing for the Grand National title? Woolsey instructs the monitors as to what to look for. If Woolsey had not forced the ACBL’s hand, one has to wonder how long the League would have allowed cheaters to continue to play. How many contenders to the GNT had team Sternberg KO’d leading to "winning" the right to represent their district? That may be the too painful part the Lone Wolff was talking about.

What does it say when nobody for the League bothers to tell the Chief Tournament Director (Machlin) and he has to learn about this from one of the players in the event? Cokin and Sion played and "won" one 1979 (GNT) match, (they used this one to verify their previous evidence) that they later “forfeited” and the year before, they were runners up in the final. Even cheating, they couldn’t win that (1978) event, albeit with different team mates. What does that say to their talent level? It tells me it was not that great. It also tells me that a lot of other experts suspected nothing, probably because it is just not something you think about without due cause and the nose of a bloodhound.

Except for a few more boards witnessed at Atlanta, the League had zero evidence that they did not already have in Norfolk. So that begs the question; why did they not proceed to convict and expel Sion and Cokin at Norfolk? They used the same code. They had the same witnesses, and added a couple more who were enlightened by Woolsey in Atlanta. Why was this not addressed at Norfolk?

That question may never be answered but I suspect the reason is clear. Chief TD Hamilton might have called home to Memphis (or far more likely, walked across the hall as all the hot-shots would be in attendance at the March NABCs) looking for guidance. “We have a problem here…and we need some help. We may have some cheating going on, what should we do?”

What was he told?

We are not ready. We need more time. Buy some. We need the smoking gun. We can’t risk lawsuits.

All of that is heart-warming, touchy-feely, and as cuddly as a teddy bear, but when was the ACBL evidence gathering going to begin? Sadly, it never got off the ground until compelled. What does that tell you?

I freely admit the below is pure conjecture.

I asked a number of top flight players if there were suspicions about Cokin and Sion at that time. A few admitted they never had so much as a hunch. Woolsey admitted he doubted it at the time Martel mentioned it to him. Martel was convinced. He might have shared his thoughts within a close circle of friends. And whether or not he did, he was not alone. Paul Soloway was suspicious as was Ron Andersen. That Andersen held Cokin/Sion in contempt was well-known within his circle. Maybe some of their ex-team mates just had a bad feeling and that’s why they moved on.

The Money, Honey


One of the things no one has ever talked about is how did it come to pass that Sion and Cokin became partners? Think about that for a moment.

From all the evidence, Sion was a couple of big notches above Cokin in the expert game. Sion was the player with a track record of tournament achievement. He wasn’t called “Wonder” for nothing. Cokin was a theorist, albeit a sound one, but without the track record of the game’s elite tournament players. Cokin was great in the back room teaching, critiquing, analyzing and coaching, but not who you wanted (if you were Sternberg and buying The Dream Team) in the line of fire.

Ninety-eight percent of partnerships at the expert level involve players of equal or at least comparable calibre: Kaplan/Kay; Gitelman/Moss, Martel/Stansby, Sontag/Weichsel, Pender/Ross, Woolsey/Manfield, Boyd/Robinson, Hamman/Soloway, Cohen/Bergen, and Rosenberg/Zia. Equality, and thereby trust is inherent in successful partnerships and particularly so at the expert level. Not too many titles are won by French/Hamman, or Joe Blow/Pro. Sion was the pro. Cokin was Joe Blow in comparison to his team and in this select circle at that moment of history.

Sion and Cokin played with other team mates of course. They danced within the inner circle of bridge’s elite. Mike Cappelletti Sr. told me that there were suspicions mostly because some experts thought their accomplishments out-performed their apparent talent level. It was as though Tampa Bay (Devil) Rays with their modest rookie laden lineup was consistently beating the veteran star-studded Yankees, Angels and Red Sox. It is not supposed to happen that way. Yet prior to Martel, no one set their minds to ascertaining how these results were being obtained. No one spoke out, as that would look like sour grapes.

But this partnership was different (or was it?) as it was akin to a sound customer with a first rate pro. Typically those are remunerative arrangements. And this was too. So it was not so much a partnership as that implies reciprocity and equality. We can more accurately classify it as a “working relationship” which requires only an agreement of the roles of the parties within the accord.

Today Alan Cokin is by all accounts a gifted theorist, a talented coach, a compelling teacher. He has paid his price, and has confessed to the ACBL. Several efforts were made to contact him and it was communicated and agreed that there was “little upside” to any involvement on his part to add to this story. I think we can all understand that. Efforts were made to contact Sion and Sternberg too and I am confident that if one of them, or if any other player was motivated to communicate they have had ample opportunity to do so.

Sion (aka Stevie “Wonder”, as in I wonder how he did that) was one of the very few with a natural gift for the game that few of us (OK, few of you) ever attain. One has to wonder, so to speak; why would Sion play with Cokin? 

The obvious reason is that Cokin could be persuaded.

Sion did not need Cokin. Sontag and Weichsel and the bridge elite would play with Sion and peer but never Cokin and peer. Sion could open doors to the summit of the game. Cokin might get there eventually. But here was an offer, to step up to the fast track to play with and against the best in the world. And here was the icing on the cake; getting paid and living the life as a bridge pro. In order to make that feasible, what was necessary was an artificial edge over the field.

Their disparity in ability is a noteworthy fact. It should have sent off alarm bells, given their impressive track record of achievement. If Sion had played with Seamon, Jacobus, Cohen, Smith or a peer, then we would not be looking at this. Cokin is neither Seamon, nor Jacobus nor is he at that level. [1] And there were other telling clues. Cokin and Sion were infamous for their obnoxiousness, not just to opponents, but to each other as well. That was apparently part of the grand scheme. So what made these two come together?

In the beginning, it was the money, honey. This was their livelihood. They needed sponsors to pay the freight and sponsors want to see their name on the trophies and titles. There were not (and is not) an over abundance of well-heeled sponsors willing to pony up for four star players, air fares, hotel bills, steak dinners, room service, entry fees and bonuses. Sponsors are like oysters, precious projects to be cultivated. So when Cokin brought Sternberg to the table, his stature rose.

Cokin was by all accounts a first-rate hustler for clients. And even if he did not enjoy the profile of the game’s elite, to the customers, he was an outstanding player and pitchman. So when he could offer up a generous sponsor (Sternberg), all of a sudden he was bringing something very valuable to the table which ingratiated him with those who made their living from such arrangements. As Hal Holbrook noted to the avaricious broker Charlie Sheen in Oliver Stone’s Wall Street: “the trouble with money is that is makes you do things you would never otherwise do.”

If you were to hire first rate pros, for some strange reason you expect first rate results. Surely like the world’s oldest profession, cheating, be it sport, life, business or gaming will always be with us. Let’s learn to become more vigilant, to spot the warning signs and to look critically at dubious results.

Here comes the tabloid part of our thesis. Let’s look outside the box, and delve into the salacious. The below is speculation, garnered from instinct, titillating details from sundry sources and trying to piece together a thirty year old jigsaw puzzle with a few missing pieces.

I wonder if buried in the committee hearings, signed confessions and ACBL archives are (and I have reason to believe yes) the answers to some of the many untouchable questions. There are so many sordid details that if it were your family’s history or mine, we would not want them to come out either. That said if I was Jack McCoy here, I would have a legacy of queries. The reader should have their own. Somewhere, these answers exist. If they don’t exist on paper, we all know why that is. Here are but a few.

1) Whose idea was it to play together in the first place?

2) Who suggested they cheat?

3) Who devised the code?

4) How does one arrive at the determination to cheat?

5) Who within the ACBL and the expert community knew? And when did they know?

My view to these queries is as follows:

1) Whose idea was it to play together in the first place?

One day at a tournament, probably on the east coast, Sion chats with Cokin after an event and plants the seed that with the right sponsor, he might be willing to form a partnership and even recruit top-level talent to join their team. This was no idle boast as Sion had the stature of an elite bridge talent and could (and would) recruit world class team mates.

2) Who suggested they cheat?

Sion suggested off hand, casually as a way to “hold their own” with the bridge elite; subtly implying that this partnership without an edge was a step or two down in rank from the game’s best and perforce that such was Cokin’s fault.

3) Who devised the code?

Sion’s code, Cokin tweaked it. Sion had already devised a simple yet brilliant scheme. It was just a matter of following the plan effortlessly, being cool under pressure.

4) How does one arrive at the determination to cheat?

Sion suggested to Cokin that this “unlawful communication” would help them achieve superior results for their sponsors which in turn help obtain better team mates, which in turn could beget wealthier backers. This wheel goes round and round, the price goes up as do the expectations from those footing the expense accounts.

5) Who within the ACBL and the expert community knew? And when did they know?

Certainly no one within the ACBL wants that to come out. That is Don Henley’s “Dirty Laundry” and although the bridge public might salivate at the prospect, I think it’s akin to a dark, shameful family secret about grandpa or Uncle Fester which for “the sake of the family” we will all look askance and pretend it never happened. This question will be addressed in the next and last chapter.

Was Cokin a victim too? I am sure all members of team Hann (and others) would recoil at the thought. If I were in their shoes, I would be incensed at the mere suggestion. Still, he was seduced by the lure of the invitation into the inner sanctum and of course playing with and against the likes of Levin, Seamon, Rosenkranz, Wold, Sanborn, Soloway, Hamman, Martel, Stansby, Wolff, Sontag, Weichsel and the list goes on. Here he is, suddenly part of the fraternity, the cream of the crop and the best players in the world. It is an exclusive domain in which few are welcome. I should know. I am one of the many.

Still, he made his bed. He chose to conspire, to “unlawfully communicate” and for that choice, he has paid a price. And unlike his partner, he has gone on to a successful career within bridge as a theorist and more recently as a coach working with expert players like Steve Landen and Pratap Rajadhyaksha.

Steve Sion once admitted to a close friend of mine that “it was the money”. Americans call that hearsay. I call it juicy gossip from a lifelong friend with no axe to grind. It certainly fits. It’s not like Sion said, “I did it for the pabulum and diapers”…… My friend (and certainly many within the bridge upper echelons) respected “Wonder” for his fabulous innate talent and could enjoy his charm. He was by all accounts charismatic. Allegedly, according to one of his former partners “bridge, broads and baseball” were his preferred interests. I can empathize with that. Sion’s bridge talents and his social magnetism were never in doubt. Eventually his “other sociopathic behaviors", (as Bobby Wolff labeled it) led to a permanent expulsion.

A couple individuals suggested that they disparaged opponents and each other with blatant hostility. One person mentioned that part of the Cokin/Sion coaching sessions (with Dr. Sternberg) included tactical considerations, particularly to be verbally abusive to women and less experienced players. Today their temper tantrums, insults and total lack of table manners would be incongruent with the present day agenda of “zero tolerance”. His team mate Sontag in The Bridge Bum (p75) noted “Sion was really bright, but he had the annoying habit of so informing people. ….Steve would tell {all partners} what they did “wrong”. He would tell them on the spot, not after the game during a “rap” session. His saving virtue was that he was usually right.”

So what if Cokin has the charisma of a cornered badger and Sion could charm the pompoms off a cheerleader? It is gossipy and attention-grabbing. Is it or is it not relevant? Was there more to their signaling system (Woolsey thought so) than the pencil positioning to indicate shortness? They made some pretty amazing opening leads. Did certain team mates or opponents come to suspect something was amiss? For example in 1978 they lost in the GNT finals; their team was Sion, Cokin, Reinhold, Levin and Seamon. If you make it to the finals, and lose; most consider that a formidable accomplishment upon which you might build. What factors led to the dissolution of this successful team? My guess? Sternberg came along.

Maybe one thing we might learn from this is when players who are not close friends nor apparently customer and professional and attain outstanding results, they should be scrutinized. This is something we should all do, especially at the highest levels because such experts have insights into the game far deeper than the run of the mill player. (more on this in the next chapter)

Maybe the sponsoring organizations should hire some computer geeks to develop some tracking software, to “red-flag” atypical situations and then follow up with some investigation. But the best tool is field personnel, expert players who can sense something amiss, and report it to …….well, who knows where? If this case gives cause for concern, it shows that expert players took it upon themselves to decipher a code, verify its authenticity, and only then report it to the authorities. And what was done with that information? It was frittered away, neglected, and ultimately dissipated into the wind.

Today cheating remains a black hole to the ACBL (although I am sure they beg to differ) where there are puny resources dedicated to detecting, unmasking and convicting cheaters. I asked my BOD member Jonathon Steinberg who I might contact if I wanted to renounce a title because my team mates had cheated. (I had hoped to pass this information along to Sontag/Weichsel.) Predictably he had no clue, and referred me to the ACBL BOD. And what does that say?

It tells me that cheating within the halls of Memphis has the same sex appeal as leprosy. It exists, but it is elsewhere (hopefully on a secluded island) and we really don’t want to talk about it, let alone go back and revisit the past. As for Cappelletti, Feldman, Hann, Hoffner, Jabbour, Sacks they now know they were swindled, that the ACBL denied, aided, and abetted the same.

So while cheaters retain their unlawfully gotten gains, the victims have but evidence, testimonials, signed confessions, archived hands, secret committee testimony and the knowledge that they were sacrificial lambs. In the meantime, convicted cheaters and their unwitting accomplices cling to this title with the tenacity of a pit-bull.

Tell that to President Spivak and sell it to the membership.

Or is that just too painful?

[1] I only pick Seamon’s name as they played in an event I read in TBW and I see that S. Sion/T. Kasday/M. Seamon/B. Cohen/R. Smith won the Spring NABC Jacoby Open Swiss in 1993.


francesco muzzinJuly 18th, 2008 at 7:53 am

Hello, i write from Italy and i read all your history.
Looking at note 1 of your last post it seems that Sion was readmitted to the ACBL, wasn’t he? If yes, when did it happened?

Cam FrenchJuly 18th, 2008 at 11:16 am

Hi Francesco,

Both Sion and Cokin were convicted and expelled on July 1979. Note that their conviction was not for Norfolk (that was never addressed) but only for their fleeting time (June 1979) at Atlanta in the GNT. They were expelled for a five year term.

After much litigation, back-room wheeling and dealing (Bobby Wolff told me he served as their “parole officer”) they were both re-instated. I assume (but can not guarantee) this was after they had served out their (5 year) sentence. Sion was subsequently re-booted (so to speak) for (in the words of Mr. Wolff) “sociopathic behavior”.

I hope that answers your question.



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